Rising Above The Earth

The earth's total surface area is about 510 million square kilometers, of which the land area covers 29.2%, or 149 million square kilometers, while the ocean area covers 70.8%, approximately 361 million square kilometers.

The land area is characterized by five types of topography: mountains, plains, plateaus, hills, and basins. Among these, mountains occupy the largest proportion, accounting for approximately 31% of the total land area. It is evident that mountains are still the most prominent feature on the earth's land.

A mountain range is a group of mountains and valleys that extend in a certain direction. Due to their vein-like distribution, they are referred to as a mountain range, and the range is extruded by orogeny. Hundreds of millions of years ago, the earth's surface was not a connected mass of land.

Dispersed landmasses collided and squeezed, and some areas were raised, forming mountain ranges. The mountains that make up the main body of a mountain range are referred to as the main vein, and the mountains that extend from the main vein are known as the branch veins. Several adjacent mountain ranges can form a mountain system.

We often observe mountains that stretch for miles on end. The area where a mountain is located is referred to as the mountainous area, with an altitude usually above 500 meters, and a relative height difference from the ground to the summit of at least 200 meters.

"Small mountain groups" that do not meet this standard are classified as hills. Mountains are mainly products of crustal orogeny.

Besides being a primary terrain on the earth's surface, mountains have significant ecological and resource values. They can provide stable water and soil for the surrounding ecosystem, playing a crucial role in protecting biodiversity and maintaining ecological balance.

Mountains also serve as gathering places for many essential mineral and hydropower resources, such as gold, silver, copper, coal, and other mineral resources, as well as energy resources such as hydropower and wind power. These resources play an irreplaceable role in human economic development and social progress.

However, with the continuous development and expansion of human activities, the mountains have suffered serious damage and loss. Excessive mining and industrialization, excessive logging and grazing, large-scale reclamation and urbanization have caused significant damage to the ecological environment and biodiversity of the mountains.

This has also intensified land desertification and soil erosion in mountainous regions. Therefore, protecting mountain ecosystems and resources while realizing sustainable development has become an urgent task and challenge worldwide.

Mountains are critical terrain on the earth's surface, with ecological, resource, cultural, and historical significance.

However, their continuous damage and loss demand immediate ecological protection and resource conservation measures to realize sustainable development. Mountain preservation is an essential component of global environmental conservation efforts.